**Vocabulary of trauma

Chapter twenty one 21





{GK traumat-, trauma wound – more at THROE]

1 a: an injury (as a wound) to living tissue caused by an extrinsic agent  b: a disordered psychic or behavioral state resulting from mental or emotional stress or physical injury

2 : an agent, force, or mechanism that causes trauma



[ME thrawe, throwe, fr. OE thrawu, threa threat, pang; akin to OHG drawa threat, Gk trauma wound, tetrainein to bore – more at THROW]


2: a hard or painful struggle



[ME thrawen, thrown to cause to twist, throw, fr. OE thrawan to cause to twist or turn; akin to OHG draen to turn, L terere to rub, Gk tribein to rub, tetrainein to bore, pierce]


(bef. 12c)

[ME, fr. OE wund; akin to OHG wunta wound]

1 a: an injury to the body (as from violence, accident, or surgery) that involves laceration or breaking of a membrane (as the skin) and usually damage to underlying tissues b:  a cut or breach in a plant due to external violence

2: a mental or emotional hurt or blow

3: something resembling a wound in appearance or effect; esp:  a rift in or blow to a political body or social group



[ME injurie, fr. L injuria, fr. injurus injurious, fr. in– + jur-, right – more at JUST}

1 a: an act that damages or hurts:  WRONG b: violation of another’s rights for which the law allows an action to recover damages

2: hurt, damage, or loss sustained



[ ME, fr. MF & L; MF juste, fr. L justus, fr. jus right, law; akin to Skt yos welfare]

1 : having a basis in or conforming to fact or reason: REASONABLE

2:  a (1): acting or being in conformity with what is morally upright or good: RIGHTEOUS (2): being what is merited:  DESERVED b: legally correct: LAWFUL



[ME resoun, fr. OF raison, fr. L ration-, ratio reason, computation; akin to Goth rathjo account, advice, L reri to calculate, think, Gk arariskein to fit – more at ARM]

1 a: a statement offered in explanation or justification  b: a rational ground or motive  c: a sufficient ground of explanation or of logical defense  d: the thing that makes some fact intelligible: CAUSE

2 a (1) the power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking esp in orderly rational ways:  INTELLIGENCE (2): proper exercise of the mind  (3): SANITY b: the sum of the intellectual powers


(bef. 12c)

[ME, fr. OE wrang, fr. (assumed) wrang, adj., wrong]

1 a: an injurious, unfair, or unjust act:  action or conduct inflicting harm without due provocation or just cause b: a violation or invasion of the legal rights of another

2: something wrong, immoral, or unethical; esp : principles, practices, or conduct contrary to justice, goodness, equity, or law

3: the state, position, or fact of being or doing wrong:  as a: the state of being mistaken or incorrect b: the state of being guilty  syn see INJUSTICE



[ME, fr. MF, fr. L intelligentia, fr. intelligent-, intelligens intelligent}

1 a (1): the ability to learn or understand or to deal with new or trying situations:  REASON; also:  the skilled use of reason (2): the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria (as tests)

2 a: an intelligent entity; esp : ANGEL  b: intelligent minds or mind

3: the act of understanding:  COMPREHENSION



[L intelligent-, intelligens, prp. Of intelligere, intellegere to understand, fr. inter– + legere to gather, select – more at LEGEND]



[ME sanite, fr. L sanitat-, sanitas health, sanity, fr. sanus healthy, sane]

: the quality or state of being sane; espsoundness or health of mind



[L sanus healthy, sane]

1: free from hurt or disease:  HEALTHY

2: mentally sound; esp : able to anticipate and appraise the effect of one’s actions

3: proceeding from a sound mind:  RATIONAL  syn see WISE

SOUND adjective

(bef. 12c)

[ME, fr. OE gesund; akin to OHG gisunt healthy]

1 a: free from injury or disease:  exhibiting normal health b: free from flaw, defect, or decay


3 a: free from error, fallacy, or misapprehension  b: exhibiting or based on thorough knowledge and experience


(bef 12c)

[ME helthe, fr. OE health, fr. hal]

1 a: the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; exp : freedom from physical disease or pain  b: the general condition of the body

2: flourishing condition:  WELL-BEING



: the state of being happy healthy, or prosperous: WELFARE


(bef. 12c)

[ME wel, fr.OE; akin to OHG wela well, OE wyllan to wish – more at WILL]

1 a: (adverb) in a good or proper manner:  JUSTLY, RIGHTLY b:  satisfactory with respect to conduct or action

2: in a kindly or friendly manner

1 a: (adjective) PROSPEROUS, WELL-OFF  b: being in satisfactory condition or circumstances

2: being in good standing or favor



5 a: free or recovered from infirmity or disease:  HEALTHY b: completely cured or healed


(bef. 12c)

[ME helen, fr. OE haelan; akin to OHG heilen to heal, OE hal whole – more at WHOLE]

1 a: to make sound or whole  b:  to restore to health

2 a: to cause (an undesirable condition) to be overcome:  MEND  b: to patch up

3: to restore to original purity or integrity:  to return to a sound state  syn see CURE



[ME, fr. OF, fr. ML & L; ML cura, cure of souls, fr. L, care]

1 a: spiritual charge:  CARE b: pastoral charge of a parish

2 a: recovery or relief from a disease  b: something (as a drug or treatment) that cures a disease  c: a course or period of treatment  d: SPA

3: something that corrects, heals, or permanently alleviates a harmful or troublesome situation

4: a processor method of curing


(bef. 12c)

[ME, fr. OE caru; akin to OHG kara lament, L garrire to chatter]

1: suffering of mind:  GRIEF

2 a: a disquieted sate of blended uncertainty, apprehension, and responsibility  b: a cause for such anxiety

3 a: painstaking or watchful attention  b: MAINTENANCE

4: regard coming from desire or esteem


6: a person or thing that is an object of attention, anxiety, or solicitude

syn CARE, CONCERN, SOLICITUDE, ANXIETY, WORRY mean a troubled or engrossed state of mind or the thing that causes this.   CARE implies oppression of the mind weighed down by responsibility or disquieted by apprehension; CONCERN implies a troubled state of mind because of personal interest, relation, or affection; SOLCITUDE implies great concern and connotes either thoughtful or hovering attentiveness toward another; ANXIETY stresses anguished uncertainty or fear or misfortune or failure; WORRY suggests fretting over matters that may or may not be real cause for anxiety


Fascinating to follow lament in regard to its connection with the root of our word care.




[MF & L; MF lamenter, fr. L lamentari, fr. lamentum, n., lament; akin to ON lomr loon, L latrare to bark, Gk leros nonsense]

: to mourn aloud:  WAIL

1: to express sorrow or mourning for often demonstratively:  MOURN

2: to regret strongly  syn see DEPLORE



[MF or L; MF deplorer, fr. L deplorare, fr. de- + plorare to wail]

1 a:  to feel or express grief for  b: to regret strongly

2: to consider unfortunate or deserving deprecation


I am getting a sense that the use of the term “caregiver” in fact carries with it an implication of regret, grief, lamentation, sorrow and mourning.  Yet the root of “cure” is connected to “care” – “cure of souls” – “care of others.”  It is a heavy word.  I want to contrast this word, caregiver, to that of mother, father, and parent in the language.


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