copied from the schore ad section on energy


Larsen & Trauner, 1995:

“…concluded that the development of infant emotions represent “primitives” of affective communication.  (Schore/ad/111)”

“…emotions have, in addition to a valence (hedonic) dimension, an intensity or arousal (energetic) dimension.  Many of the “primary” emotions are

ergotropic-dominant, energy-expending, high-arousal


trophotropic-dominant, energy-conserving, low-arousal affects

and these “primitive” affects appear early in development [it would be nice and helpful if he said here HOW early], arise automatically, are expressed in facial movements, and are coreltated with differentiable ANS activity.  Due to the lateralization of catecholaminergic systems in the right hemisphere, it is dominant in the regulation of arousal and is more closely associated with regulation of heart rate than the left.  This hemisphere is specialized for processing the autonomic correlates of emotional arousal, and activation of the right orbitofrontal are occurs during classical conditioning of an emotional response, the learning of the relationship between events that allows the organism to represent its environment (Hugdahl et al., 1995).  The structural and functional qualities of the right cortex, which has a higher metabolic rate than the left, thus account for its essential role in highly arousing emotional processes.  (Schore/ad/111)”

I need to also copy this last part into a file so that it can go with the specific information on the hemispheres


“The developmental approach presented here is compatible with a model in which the early maturing right hemisphere [which is evidently mature at 18 months, before the left one even begins to mature] modulates all nonverbal “primary” emotions, regardless of valence, while the later maturing left (which does not begin its growth spurt until the last half of the second year) modulates verbal “social” emotions and enhances positive and inhibits negative emotional behavior (Ross, Hofman, & Buck, 1994).  (Schore/ad/111)”


“It also supports the views that the right hemisphere mediates pleasure and pain and the more intrinsically primitive emotions, and that

although the left cortex acts to inhibit emotional expression generated in the limbic areas of the right half of the brain,

the right brain contains a circuit of emotion regulation that is involved in the modulation of “primary” emotions and “intense emotional-homeostatic processes” (Porges, 1995).

Thus, the experience and regulation of affects mediated by extremes of arousal, both high (like terror, excitement, and elation) and low (like shame), would involve more right hemispheric activity, in contrast to their left hemispheric-driven counterparts, anxiety, interest, enjoyment, and guilt.    (Schore/ad/111)”

Now, I don’t really understand this – he says joy-enjoyment and interest and anticipation are the main emotions an infant is supposed to feel prior to 12 months – so how would enjoyment and interest be left brain emotions?  Is the left brain beginning to form as these emotions are activated prior to 18 months?

So he is saying these emotions have counterparts:

In the right brain they are terror, excitement, elation and shame

In the left brain they are anxiety, interest, enjoyment and guilt

Terror – anxiety

Excitement – interest

Elation – enjoyment

Shame – guilt

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